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Bank of Canada Repurchase Agreement

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The Bank of Canada Repurchase Agreement: Understanding Its Significance

The Bank of Canada (BoC) is a central bank that manages the monetary policies of Canada and regulates the country`s financial system. One of the important tools that the BoC uses is the repurchase agreement (repo). Just like any other tool, it`s essential to understand its significance.

What is a Repurchase Agreement (Repo)?

A repo is a financial agreement between two parties, where one party sells a security to the other party and agrees to repurchase it at a later date. The seller gets cash upfront and agrees to pay interest on the cash until the security is repurchased. The buyer gets the security as collateral, and the repo serves as a short-term loan.

What is the Significance of a Repo for The Bank of Canada?

The BoC uses repurchase agreements to inject or withdraw cash from the financial system. When the BoC purchases securities through a repo, it injects cash into the system, and when it sells securities through a repo, it withdraws the cash from the system.

The BoC uses repos to regulate the money supply in the economy. By using repos, the BoC can control the interest rates in the short-term money market. The BoC uses the overnight rate to influence the interest rates that commercial banks charge for loans and mortgages.

For instance, when the economy is booming, the BoC may sell securities through repos to withdraw cash from the financial system, tighten the supply, and increase the interest rates. This move will help curb inflation and cool the economy. Conversely, when the economy is sluggish, the BoC may purchase securities through repos, inject cash into the financial system, and lower the interest rates to stimulate economic growth.

The BoC also uses repos to manage the liquidity of the financial system. The BoC can act as a lender of last resort, providing liquidity to the financial system during times of distress or crisis.


The Bank of Canada repurchase agreement is an essential tool that helps the BoC manage the country`s monetary policies. The BoC uses it to regulate the money supply and interest rates, manage liquidity, and act as a lender of last resort. Understanding the significance of the repo is vital for investors, economists, and policymakers as it influences the financial system`s stability and the economy`s growth.